Australia needs a wake-up call

Nicki Shumway, Martine Maron and James Watson recently published a letter in Science on the health of the Great Barrier Reef:

The Great Barrier Reef was recently considered for a World Heritage ‘in danger’ listing, but was spared in 2015 by the development of the Reef 2050 Long Term Sustainability Plan. This plan includes targets to improve water quality and biodiversity in the Reef, which is considered in poor overall condition. A key criticism of the 2050 Plan by scientists was the lack of discussion and concrete action on the impacts of climate change to the Reef.  In addition, a key requirement by the World Heritage Committee was that the Plan be fully implemented and adequately funded, with a progress report submitted to the Committee by Dec. 1, 2016.

Unfortunately, the health and resilience of Great Barrier Reef has continued to deteriorate. Last year the largest bleaching event on record caused massive loss of coral cover, and again this year we are in the midst of another bleaching event – unprecedented for the Great Barrier Reef.

 The Reef is in poor condition, with current policy doing little to abate this decline. We wrote an article, published this month in Science about the inconsistent policies of the Queensland and Commonwealth governments, who on the one hand state their commitment to the integrity of the reef, and on the other, approve large coal mines in the same region. We suggest that an ‘in danger’ listing by UNESCO will be the wake-up call needed to prioritise this natural wonder over industrial development in the region.

 Read more here: Australia needs a wake-up call

News, Students

Recovering the far eastern curlew

PhD candidate Micha Jackson’s work was recently featured on the NESP TSR website, as well as this ABC News story and radio interview.

Micha has also published a literature review on the value of artificial roosting habitat for migratory birds, that can be downloaded here

The far eastern curlew, one of the world’s largest migratory shorebirds, has declined dramatically in the last 20 years. According to Micha Jackson the bird is in trouble on multiple fronts and central to addressing these challenges is a better understanding of its habitat needs and international cooperation.

The migration route of the far eastern curlew falls within the ‘East Asian-Australasian Flyway’ (EAAF), which it shares with more than 50 other migratory shorebird species. Combined there are more than 8 million shorebirds that pass through more than 20 countries every year.

The northern end of the EAAF (where migratory shorebird species breed) includes parts of Russia, China, Mongolia and Alaska, and its southern end (non-breeding habitat) includes parts of south-east Asia, Australia and New Zealand. In the middle lies much of east and south-east Asia, and some islands of the western Pacific.

As with all migratory species, if any one critical area in the life cycle is left unprotected, it could spell the collapse of the entire population despite the best efforts elsewhere. All countries along the migration route will need to enact conservation measures to achieve recovery of the far eastern curlew, and these actions will also benefit many other species.

Far Eastern Curlew. Image: Micha Jackson

Tracking studies over the last 30 years have taught us much about the far eastern curlew’s life-cycle. These studies include the resighting, recording and reporting of bands and flags attached to the legs of curlews as they move through the flyway, and the use of geo-locators and satellite transmitters.

It breeds in marshy areas of Russia and northern China, and, as far as we can tell the entire population passes through the Yellow Sea/Bohai Sea region, which includes coastal areas of China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea, during migration. This region is therefore a critical stopover area for curlews to rest and refuel while undertaking their gruelling long-distance migration flights.

During the non-breeding season, about three quarters of the birds wait out the northern winter in Australia, with others heading to the Philippines, Indonesia, PNG and likely elsewhere.

Under a dark cloud

The far eastern curlew has suffered rapid and dramatic population declines in recent decades. The IUCN Red List, which assesses the global status of species, listed it as Least Concern in 2004, but it was rapidly upgraded to Vulnerable in 2010 and to Endangered in 2015. Recent research confirmed an annual decline of almost 6% over the last two decades, and the species was listed as Critically Endangered in Australia in 2016.

A key driver of this decline is extensive loss of intertidal mudflat, particularly in the Yellow/Bohai Sea region – where more than half of this habitat has disappeared over the last 50 years. Causes of mudflat loss are multiple and include: coastal developments, which ‘reclaim’ soft, food-filled mudflats using seawalls and convert them into solid land; a reduction in sediment deposits from rivers that have been extensively dammed; and escalating sea-level rise.

The bill of this knee-height bird can be up to 20 cm in females, and is used to probe soft mud for food like crabs and marine worms. Image: Dean Ingwersen

Other impacts on the species include reduced food supply on remaining mudflats, loss of and changes to breeding habitat, hunting, accidental catch in fishing nets, and pollution.

Within Australia, recreational beach goers and dogs are also having a major impact on curlews, disturbing them on ‘roosting’ habitat – important areas where they rest during high tide periods when mudflat feeding grounds are covered with seawater. This shy bird will generally flee from people and dogs when they are more than a hundred metres away and does not readily resettle when disturbed. Coastal developments are also impacting roosting habitat.

Research for strategic planning

A new Darwin-based TSR project is addressing key knowledge gaps facing far eastern curlew conservation. In particular, how the birds use different feeding and roosting habitats and which areas are most critical to conserve, particularly in the face of increasing coastal development.

Shorebirds will use some artificial habitats, including some wharves, commercial salt works and aquaculture ponds. This project is working with the Darwin Port, where significant numbers of far eastern curlew use the East Arm Wharf as a roosting area.

Filling knowledge gaps about feeding and roosting requirements will enable the project to develop conservation guidelines for developers, planners and regulators. Our hope is that improved management of ‘accidental’ habitats like East Arm Wharf, alongside conservation of intertidal mudflat habitat, could help the far eastern curlew and other migratory shorebirds recover.

This project also complements a NESP Marine Biodiversity Hub project, which takes a whole-of-north approach to conserving migratory species groups reliant on the marine environment.

An international focus

The new TSR Hub project commenced just as key stakeholders from EAAF countries met in Singapore at the 9th EAAF Partnership ‘Meeting of Partners’. This biennial meeting is the decision-making forum of the Partnership, which commenced in 2006 and is a voluntary, non-legally-binding agreement allowing countries, local governments, NGOs, IGOs, and corporations from throughout the flyway to work together on shorebird conservation initiatives.

The 9th Meeting of Partners of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway Partnership met in Singapore in January 2017. Image: Eugene Cheah

In response to the dire situation facing the far eastern curlew, a special task force was established at the 2015 Meeting of Partners and at the 2017 meeting, a Single Species Action Plan was endorsed and launched, to guide priority conservation and research actions to help the species recover throughout the flyway.

Given the current status of far eastern curlew and its recent dramatic declines, the survival of all individuals remaining in the population is crucial. Australia’s role is to design and implement effective conservation measures at home to protect non-breeding habitat from disturbance and loss of roosting habitat, and to work cooperatively with other flyway countries.

Get the full version of this article in Science for Saving Species Magazine.


New research to help preserve the benefits people receive from nature

Humans rely on things that come from nature – including clean air, water, food, and timber.  But how can we tell if these natural services that people rely on, are at risk of being lost, potentially permanently?

That is the focus of a new paper by an international team, led by Dr Martine Maron from The University of Queensland’s School of Earth and Environmental Sciences.

“There are many things that happen in nature that provide benefits to people, and we call these ecosystem services,” Dr Maron said.

European honeybee and Australian native stingless bee. Credit: Dr Tobias Smith, UQ

“As well as natural goods, like seafood, crops, and timber, they can also include other things like the well-being benefits of spending time in a park or at the beach, protection from flooding and even regulation of the climate.

“Many of these things are essential to people, but until now, there hasn’t been a consistent way to look at whether different ecosystem services are under threat from growing human demand or unsustainable levels of use.

“We have developed a framework to identify services that at risk of being undersupplied or even of being lost entirely.  This allows time to either move towards more sustainable use, or to start planning for alternatives when we lose the ecosystem service.

“At its core, the framework is a method to analyse supply and demand, and the different things that affect them, like the condition of natural systems and whether demand by people is expected to change over time.

“For example, a fishery might have been able to supply demand until now, but as the local population grows, the whole ecosystem service can become under threat when demand exceeds supply.”

Dr Matthew Mitchell, a study co-author based at the University of British Columbia, said: “An example we often see in our cities is the loss of vegetation and its ability to intercept rainwater and reduce flooding.

Lac Hertel, Mont Saint Hilaire, Quebec. Credit: Matthew Mitchell, University of British Columbia

“People continue to develop flood-prone areas while also clearing vegetation and building on upstream slopes, so floods are becoming more common and damaging.”

Dr Maron said the new framework could provide a basis for global, national and regional assessments of threat to ecosystem services, and accompany existing assessments of threat to species and ecosystems.

“As the need to prioritise investment in safeguarding ecosystem services becomes more urgent, a framework for assessing when and where ecosystem services are imperilled is timely,” she said.

The study, published in Trends in Ecology and Evolution, is supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery project grant.

It involves researchers from UQ; University of British Columbia, Canada; University College, London; University of New South Wales; NSW Office of Environment and Heritage; and the Wildlife Conservation Society, U.S.A.